Cine au fost băieții deștepți de după Revoluție. Stolojan, „tăticul naționalizării valutei”

După primul an de libertate, democrația a fost tradusă haotic de românii ținuți prea mult timp sub jugul comunist. Se lumina calea spre Occident, dar economia se cufunda în beznă. Într-o totală degringoladă financiară, românii începeau să guste din capitalism. Fiecare, după propria judecată. 

Cei bine înfipți în sistemul de comerț al țării și în perioada comunistă s-au privatizat rapid. În lipsa legilor, a taxelor și impozitelor, noii afaceriști se îmbogățeau.

Viorel Cataramă, om de afaceri: A fost o fericire maximă, erau timpuri în care, evident, se câștigau foarte mulți bani. Domnilor, nu uitați, vorbim de rata profitului de 6000%. Ca să ne înțelegem despre ce discutăm. Luai o vază cu 100 de euro și o vindeai cu 6 mii de euro, profitul de 5900 îl băgai în buzunar. Nu erau taxe, impozite.

În același timp, muncitorii din fabrici înțelegeau libertatea bazându-se pe dictonul: pauzele dese, cheia marilor succese!

Theodor Stolojan, fost prim-ministru: Noi am avut luni de zile în care economia întreprinderii funcționa fiecare de capul ei.

Astfel, România începea să se afunde. Banii circulau doar prin buzunarele proaspeților afaceriști, fabricile și uzinele nu mai erau viabile, iar bugetul statului se subția. Anul 1990 se încheia cu o scădere de peste 10% a produsului intern brut. Rezervele moștenite de la regimul comunist se epuizaseră, iar măsurile de trecere la economia de piață trebuiau luate urgent.

Theodor Stolojan: Practic, în România, trebuia să începi să construiești.

Pentru a construi însă ar fi trebuit atrași bani din exterior. Industria românească avea nevoie de modernizări. Iar țara – de legi care să pună economia pe un drum corect.

Protestele oamenilor și Mineriada din septembrie 1991 au oprit reforma. Guvernul Petre Roman cade, iar la cârma Executivului trece Theodor Stolojan. Economia țării trecea printr-un moment dificil. Cele trei bănci de Stat erau aproape de faliment. Stolojan a luat atunci decizia de recapitalizare a băncilor.

Theodor Stolojan: „Sigur că sunt multe lucruri care puteau fi făcute diferit, mult mai bine. Băncile au rămas fără capital, personalul nu avea experiența necesară unei economii de piață. Trebuia să facem un lucru pe care nu l-am știut: atunci când restructurezi, trebuie să schimbi conducerea, îi credeam pe toți oamenii corecți. Câștigam bani frumoși la Banca Mondială și am investit 15.000 de dolari în Banca Agricolă, pe care i-am pierdut”.

Poate cea mai importantă decizie economică din mandatul de premier al lui Theodor Stolojan a fost liberalizarea prețurilor, fără însă a liberaliza și cursul valutar.

Theodor Stolojan: „Atunci când au venit minerii, în septembrie 1991, printre alții care au luat bătaie, din greșeală, evident, au fost și reprezentanții Băncii Mondiale. Au primit ordin să părăsească România, și FMI și Banca Mondială, și ne-am trezit în toamna lui 1991, fără rezerve valutare, fără linie de credit, nimeni nu voia să acorde un credit României și a trebuit să luăm măsurile respective, inclusiv așa-zisa confiscare a valutei”.

Toată valuta din conturile întreprinderilor și societăților comerciale a fost convertită în lei, la un curs fixat de BNR. Multă vreme, românii nu au mai putut să cumpere de la casele de schimb valutar mai mult de 500 de dolari pe an. Și astfel, la colț de stradă, se năștea o nouă meserie. Cea de valutist.

Valutist 1: Aveți ceva schimbat? Ai ceva de schimbat? Dolari, mărci?

Valutist 2: Să faci ceva, la ora actuală, e o șmecherie. trebuie să-ți meargă capul. De exemplu, noi, mergem la o casă de schimb, filăm fraierul, el vine să schimbe. ‘Vino încoa’! Chiar, te rog, să vii încoa’!’. Îl bag într/un gang, îi arăt… uite, atât îți dau! Îi număr banii pe față, și eu de fapt îi bag ziare… cu un elastic, îl ard!

Fără educație financiară, românii au picat foarte ușor și în capcana mirajului îmbogățirii peste noapte. Cu banii adunați la saltea în perioada comunistă, când nu aveau pe ce să-i cheltuiască, oamenii au crezut în jocuri piramidale și fonduri de investiții falimentare. Primul inventat a fost CARITAS, în 1992. Românii depuneau pungi cu bani și așteptau să încaseze de opt ori mai mult. Și totul se întâmpla sub ochii autorităților, uneori chiar cu complicitatea lor.

Ioan Stoica, fondatorul CARITAS:  Cum se poate de opt ori? Ăsta e un secret, dacă l-as spune nu ar mai fi secret.”

În anii ‘90, peste 6 milioane de români au contribuit cu miliarde de dolari la afaceri dubioase, care se făceau sub ochii autorităților. Și astăzi unii își mai caută dreptatea în instanțe.

Sursa: Realitatea Financiara

Articolul precedentConsiliul Concurenței a amendat „cartelul prețurilor” de pe Aeroportul Otopeni
Articolul următorCriza din Canalul Suez continuă: stabilitatea comerţului global, amenințată

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