Culisele statului paralel | Cum au fost cumpărate de străini BRANDURILE românești și câte au rezistat până astăzi – dezvăluiri incendiare

Ce s-a întâmplat cu mărcile și invențiile românești după 1989? Dacă am vrea să facem un top al celor mai puternice branduri româneşti, am avea de unde alege. Ar fi foarte greu să ne oprim doar la 10 poziții. Cum au fost cumpărate brandurile de țară de străini și ce soartă au avut, în exclusivitate, la Realitatea PLUS, în emisiunea „Culisele statului paralel”, cu Anca Alexandrescu.

Apa minerală Borsec rezistă de peste 200 de ani pe piața românească. Deliciosul salam de Sibiu încă se mai produce, alături de celebrul desert cu ciocolată Eugenia. Nu putem ignora nici Berea Gambrinus sau cosmeticele Gerovital și Farmec. Din păcate, lista produselor de succes fabricate înainte de anii 90 este mult mai lungă decât cea actuală. De altfel, multe dintre mărcile din perioada comunismului l-au ajutat pe Ceaușescu să achite datoria externă. Rând pe rând, după `90 au început să dispară fabricile, așa cum am mai prezentat, în episoadele anterioare la „Culisele statului paralel”.Dorința românilor de a experimenta noi gusturi și produse din afara granițelor a ucis brandurile românești. Și legislația neclară de la începutul democrației a sufocat micii și marii producători cu taxe mari și multe. Și valul de privatizări din anii 90 au avut rolul lor în distrugerea istoriei lucrurilor de calitate din țara noastră.

Câteva branduri naționale care au dispărut din aceste considerente sunt: Fabrica de blănuri Favior Vidra Orăștie, Fabrica de Ulei Unirea, Lactis, Fabrica de Bere Grivița, INETOF – care producea elice de elicoptere la Galați, fabrica de chibrituri PAL, Piscicola Galați și Tulcea – fabrici de conserve, Oltcit, Fabrica de detergenţi şi vopsele Apollo din Galați, Combinatul de creștere a porcilor Comtim. Toate aceste companii de stat au fost ruinate prin privatizări defectuoase sau prin administrări care au lăsat de dorit.

Produsele care aduceau țării un renume internațional și care contribuiau major la bugetul de stat sunt automobilele ARO și Dacia, țigările Carpați și Snagov, schiurile marca Reghin, ciorapii Adesgo, cămășile Braiconf și confecțiile de la Apaca și Tricodava. Păpușile Arădeanca, stilourile Flaro și încălțămintea Guban sau Clujana făceau parte din viața de zi cu zi a românilor și erau folosite cu mândrie pentru că pe ele scria „Fabricat în România”, un lucru tot mai rar întâlnit în zilele noastre.

În afara țării, marcajul care atestă că produsul s-a fabricat în România e o dovadă a calității, spre deosebire de cele făcute în țări precum Indonezia sau China.

În prezent exportăm țesături din Bistrița Năsăud și Focșani către marile case de modă ale lumii, precum Hugo Boss, Versace, branduri precum H&M și Bershka. Exportăm vin, fructe și legume bio și, nu în ultimul rând, am dat Europei un dintre cele mai fiabile și mai bune mașini: Dacia.

Francezii de la Renault, cei care au cumpărat brandul nostru de țară, au păstrat conceputul inventat de români: raport calitate preț extraordinar.

Poate vă amintiți și de benzinăriile PECO. Erau aproape 600. Toate au dispărut începând cu 1991, atunci când au fost preluate de o companie nou înființată, Petrom. În 2004, OMV cumpăra Petrom şi reorganiza toată producţia şi distribuţia de produse petroliere.

Pasta de dinţi Cristal, despre care copiii spuneau, amuzându-se, că „făcea dinţii ca de cal”, a fost înlocuită cu branduri internaționale, de masă, iar sucul Cico a fost înlocuit, de asemenea, cu mărci internaționale mamut. Și asta doar pentru că aveau un ambalaj mai frumos și pentru că venea din lumea la care toți visam la vremea aceea.

Și, totuși, ce au făcut românii cu fabricile în care produceau produsele despre care ne-am amintit? Din păcate, acestea au fost lăsate în mare parte să ajungă ruine. Exemple sunt fabricile combinatului COMTIM sau uzinele în care se producea săpunul Cheia. Altele au fost vândute, pe bucățele, la fier vechi, precum fabrica de automobile ARO sau cea de conserve de la Calafat.

Marile companii străine au cumpărat în România văzând potențialul afacerilor și bazându-se în special pe mâna ieftină de lucru. Din păcate, companiile mamă, dintr-un motiv sau altul, au dispărut lăsând rate de șomaj uriașe în urma lor. Un exemplu este Colgate-Palmolive. A cumpărat fabrica de săpun Stela, de lângă Obor, și fabrica Norvea Braşov.

Românii au mai încercat, pe alocuri, să învie produsele de odinioară dar s-au lovit de ambiții și probleme legale.

În 2006, cei de la Romaqua Group şi-au amintit şi au relansat „Brifcor, sucul de care ţi-era dor”. Conducerea companiei a anunţat că principala lor strategie de promovare este să facă apel la nostalgia românilor pentru produsele românești de altă dată. Din păcate, drepturile asupra brandului Brifcor au fost neclare și astfel au ajuns să fie disputate prin tribunale până în 2010. Instanţa a decis că marca aparţine sucevenilor de la Consuc SA, deţinută de grupul Trust Orizont.

Aceştia au reluat producţia, iar fabrica produce 1.000 de tone de Brifcor lunar. Firma speră să atingă curând capacitatea maximă de producţie de 3.000 de tone, a declarat Cosmin Iftode, directorul de marketing al grupului Trust Orizon.

Un alt brand care a supraviețuit pieței este Arctic.

Arctic a apărut în 1970, iniţial sub numele FRIGERO. Dar, doi ani mai târziu, și-a schimbat numele. Produsele din Găeşti au avut un mare succes pe vremuri, când pe piaţă singurele alternative erau Fram, ZIL şi Minsk, a căror calitate nu era prea ridicată.

În 1997, compania a fost listată la Bursa de Valori Bucureşti. Grupul majoritar de acţiuni a fost preluat de Banca Europeană pentru Reconstrucţie şi Dezvoltare şi grupul bancar francez Société Générale. În 2002, compania a fost preluată de turcii de la Arcelik, care au investit în vechea fabrică și Arctic a rămas printre liderii pieței românești pentru aparatură electrocasnică. Exportul aduce mari profituri noilor patroni.

Românii au avut și au putut, însă, după 90, dorința de a vedea ce e afară, ne-a făcut să uităm de ce am avut și la noi. Treptat, străinii ne-au luat o parte dintre rețetele succesului în diferite domenii. Au rămas o mulțime de branduri care ar putea aducă profit dacă le-am învia.

Sursa: Realitatea Financiara

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