Suedia ar putea fi prima țară renunță la bancnote și monede

Stefan Ingves, guvernatorul Riksbank, a remarcat recent că unii tineri suedezi „habar nu au” cum arată banii reali. Este un viitor care îi îngrijorează pe Ingves și pe alții, guvernatorul spunând că parlamentarii ar putea fi nevoiți să intervină înainte de a fi prea târziu, scrie Mediafax.

Nu a fost întotdeauna evident că lipsa de numerar ar putea deveni un risc. Trecerea la tranzacții digitale vine cu o mulțime de avantaje, inclusiv tipul de transparență care face spălarea banilor sau evaziunea fiscală mult mai greu de realizat. Dar Suedia pare să fi trecut de un punct crucial. Dacă nu există deloc bancnote și monede, ce se întâmplă dacă rețelele digitale eșuează? Și ce se întâmplă în cazul unor atacuri cibernetice? Astfel de evenimente pot produce mult mai multe daune decât jafurile băncilor de până acum.

„Dacă luminile se sting, trebuie să avem suficient numerar fizic în țară încât să putem reveni la utilizarea banilor fizici dacă există o problemă serioasă”, a spus Ingves.

Suedia încearcă acum să abordeze problema lipsei de numerar în mijlocul unei pandemii care face din contactul cu numerarul un risc de sănătate, devenind mai puțin popular ca niciodată. Metoda de plată preferată în aceste zile este fără contact, pentru o siguranță maximă a sănătății.

Klarna AB, o bancă suedeză, estimează ca 73% din plățile efectuate cu cardul de către clienții săi sunt acum fără contact, în creștere de la 63% înainte de pandemie. „Oamenii nu vor să atingă monede și bancnote” sau „să apese butoane”, a spus Viveka Soderback, manager de informații pentru consumatori la Klarna. Coronavirusul „a accelerat această tendință”.

Suedia are mai puțini bani în circulație decât oriunde în lume, aproximativ 1% din produsul intern brut, conform celor mai recente date disponibile. Procentul este 8% în SUA și mai mult de 10% în zona euro.

Ingves spune că problema ridică, de asemenea, chestiuni „practice” cu privire la rolul unei banci centrale. De aceea, Riksbank a făcut o planificare avansată pentru a afla cum să rămână relevant și cum să se asigure că cetațenii nu se regăsesc brusc fără acces la banii reali.

„Avem nevoie de o definiție a cursului adecvată erei digitale”, a spus guvernatorul într-un discurs recent, adăugând că guvernul va trebui, de asemenea, să elaboreze o legislație care să impună băncilor și companiilor „să mențină o capacitate minimă” de gestionare a banilor lichizi.

În 2017, Riksbank a început să analizeze fezabilitatea emiterii unei monede digitale. La începutul acestui an, a lansat un proiect pilot pentru a afla ce tip de tehnologie este necesară pentru a lanssa așa-numita coroană electronică.

Între timp, unul din ultimele bastioane ale numerarului – banii de buzunar pentru copii – piere și el în Suedia. Doar 16% dintre copiii suedezi primesc alocații regulate sub formă de bancnote și monede reale, arată un sondaj realizat de Sifo în iunie. Svenska Handelsbanken AB, cel mai mare creditor din Suedia, a introdus o pusculiță digitală pentru a ajuta copiii să-și gestioneze banii de buzunar prin intermediul telefoanelor lor mobile.

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